Blood cancer is commonly known as Leukemia or leukaemia,a cancer of the blood or bone marrow(sum sum tulang) and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication-pembahagian atau penghasillan yg luar biasa tanpa kawalan) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes)-sel darah putih yg terlibat atau main component dlm system immunisasi badan anda.Boleh dikatakan sel darah putih ialah 'askar' yg berperang dgn sebarang bakteria atau virus atau apa2 shj bahan yg boleh menyebabkan penyakit(pathogen).
Brief judgement-bukan kah bilangan 'askar' yg kian bertambah ,itu suatu berita yg baik?Sbb kan mudah nak menghapuskan sebarang 'musuh' yg berpotensi membuat diri saya menghidapi penyakit? Itu tanggapan yg salah sbb
Leukemia is divided into 2 types:
Acute leukemia is characterized by the rapid increase of immature (x matang)blood cells. This crowding makes the bone marrow unable to produce healthy blood cells. Acute forms of leukemia can occur in children and young adults. (In fact, it is a more common cause of death for children in the US than any other type of malignant disease). Immediate treatment is required in acute leukemias due to the rapid progression and accumulation of the malignant cells(cancerous cells), which then spill over into the bloodstream and spread to other organs of the body.
Chronic leukemia is distinguished by the excessive build up of relatively mature, but still abnormal, blood cells. Typically taking months to years to progress, the cells are produced at a much higher rate than normal cells, resulting in many abnormal white blood cells in the blood. Chronic leukemia mostly occurs in older people, but can theoretically occur in any age group. Whereas acute leukemia must be treated immediately, chronic forms are sometimes monitored for some time before treatment to ensure maximum effectiveness of therapy.
1. natural or artificial ionizing radiation(x-ray,sunlight(d serius type)....)
2. certain kinds of chemicals(drugs)
3. some viruses(human immunodeficiency virus or human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1 and -2, causing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma).
4. genetic predispositions(keturunan genetik)
Erm..semua faktor diatas boleh menyebabkan gen anda mengalami mutasi. Gen /gene itu sebenarnya macam satu set of instrution utk badan anda menghasilkan cell atau tissue terpulang kpd keadaaan yg tertentu-dah juga instruction utk macam mana badan anda menghasilkan antibodies n how badan anda nak berperang dgn penyakit. Bila arahan yg diberi dah diubah atau x boleh dibaca oleh badan-pelbagai masalah n penyakit akan timbul contohnya-penghasilan sel darah putih yg diluar kawalan-cancer darah.
Damage to the bone marrow, by way of displacing the normal bone marrow cells with higher numbers of immature white blood cells, results in a lack of blood platelets, which are important in the blood clotting process. This means people with leukemia may become bruised, bleed excessively, or develop pinprick bleeds (petechiae).
White blood cells, which are involved in fighting pathogens, may be suppressed or dysfunctional. This could cause the patient's immune system to be unable to fight off a simple infection or to start attacking other body cells.
Finally, the red blood cell deficiency leads to anemia, which may cause dyspnea.
All symptoms can be attributed to other diseases; for diagnosis, blood tests and a bone marrow examination are required.
Some other related symptoms:
- Fever, chills, night sweats and other flu-like symptoms
- Weakness and fatigue
- Swollen or bleeding gums
- Neurological symptoms (headaches)
- Enlarged liver and spleen
- Frequent infection
- Bone pain
- Joint pain
- Swollen tonsils
- Diarrhea(cirit birit